When London Became An Island

Soochong, Shoguns and the Saracen’s surveys

These are the sources from which the graphic content of this part of the website have been taken.

Chapter 1  Introduction

1 Author’s own photograph.

2 Cartoon in the public domain.

3 Author’s own photograph.

Chapter 1 - The Hydrographer and the Hydrographic Office

Hong Kong. Drawing and watercolour on paper, by the English painter George Chinnery.

This comes from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Visualizing Cultures (MIT VC) website.

Visualizing Cultures was launched at MIT in 2002 to explore the potential of the Web for developing innovative image-driven scholarship and learning. The VC mission is to use new technology and hitherto inaccessible visual materials to reconstruct the past as people of the time visualized the world (or imagined it to be).


HMS Beagle. Painted by Owen Stanley. Stanley was an officer in the Royal Navy and a surveyor. He was responsible for surveys around the Great Barrier Reef and the Torres Strait.

Chapter 2 - Why sail, not steam?

There are several images on the Internet of HMS Virago. This one comes from


It looks as though it has very detailed information about mid-C19th ships - trouble is its all in Russian. I presume the Virago is featured because of the attack on Petropavlovsk.

Chapter 3 - The Captain and his preparations

Sir Edward Belcher - from Wikipedia, Painting by Stephen Pearce 1859.

Chronometer photograph is from  the British Museum website

Chapter 4  - The problem of  longitude

1 and 2 From Wikipedia (I added Greenwich to 2)

Author’s own photographs of Waltham Abbey and Flamsteed House. Flamsteed House dates from 1675 and was designed by Sir Christopher Wren. It housed the original observatory.

Chapter 5 - Exporting free trade importing tea

Photographs set in main text are the author’s.

Pictures of Canton (View of the Canton Factories, 1805-06 by William Daniel) and Lin Tse-hsü  are from the MIT VC website.

The opium ships at Lintin, China by William John Huggins from http://onpoint.wbur.org/about-on-point

East India House by Thomas Hosmer Shepherd from Wikipedia. Shepherd produced series of illustrations of the Regent’s Canal in the 1820s.

The painting of the Nemesis, by Edward Duncan, is also from Wikipedia.

Chapter 6 - Plymouth to the Sunda Strait February to June1854

First photograph shows an inscribed ship’s biscuit. This biscuit was baked in Sydney and supplied to H.M.S. Galatea.  Captain H.R.H. Prince Alfred was the son of Queen Victoria. From the Museum of New Zealand website.

The photograph of the currents is from the Blue Planet Society@Seasaver website.The photograph of the Martello Tower is from the website of the Simon’s Town Museum and Historical Society.

Lithograph of Krakatoa from Wikepedia.

Chapter 7 - The Sunda Strait to Hong Kong - June to August 1854

Painting of Java seascape at Anjer point By Abraham Salm in the 1860s. From the Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam via Wikipedia.

Pagoda picture from UK Government Art Collection.

Congreve’ rockets from the ‘Facility of Application of the Congreve Rocket System’. On the US Naval Academy Nimitz library website.

Pictures of Raffles, the Keying and Brooke both from Wikipedia. The painting of Brooke dates from 1847 and was done by Francis Grant.

Chapter 8  - Trouble in China

The Anglicised Chinese words in Soochong, Shoguns and the Saracen’s surveys are generally based on the Wade-Giles system.

The photographs of;

Queen Victoria was taken by J J E Mayall  in 1860.

The Forbidden City comes from the chasingthevine.com website

The Dragon Empress comes from the website of smithsonianmag.com

The painting of Robert Morrison was by George Chinney and is on Wikipedia, as is the portrait of Hung Hsin-ch’uan.

Chapter 9 - An American squadron, an American pirate

Both photographs and the illustration of USS Porpoise from Wikipedia

Chapter 10 - Tea to the Pagoda Anchorage

First illustration from Wikipedia. By Thomas Allom it is from a book published in 1843. The title was Woo-e-shan, or Bohea Hills, Province of Fo-kien.

Map by author

East Indiaman (Repulse) in East India Dock basin by Charles Henry Seaforth. From Wikipedia

Chapter 11 - Eclipsing clippers

Both illustrations from Wikipedia. The painting is by Fitz Henry Lane of the ‘Southern Cross’ leaving Boston Harbour in 1851.

Chapter13  -  Richards imposes the ‘red-checked shirt’

The illustration of Fleetwood Pellew by George Chinnery c1806. From Wikipedia.

The illustration of Sir John Bowring is taken from www.macstudies.net

Chapter14  - From Gull Point to Saracen Head

The chart of the track is from the log book of the ‘Saracen’

The two maps of the survey area between Gull Point and Saracen Head by the author.

Painting of Sir Francis Beaufort by Stephen Pearce. From Wikipedia (Dutch language)

Chapter15  - Hunting Putiatin

Picture of Sir James Stirling from Wikipedia.

Painting of Nikolai Muravev by Konstantin Makovsky. From Wikipedia. Interesting that Muravev is shown on board a ship, presumably in the Sea of Okhotsk.

‘Black Ship’ print on MIT website.

American whaler Morrison in 1845. From the website of chelseagreen.com

Puitiatin in Japan on Wikipedia.

Two maps by the author

Chapter 16 - To Port Hamilton

The chart of the track is from the log book of the ‘Saracen’

Illustration of the sinking of the Diana from the Illustrated London News. From Wikipedia.

Map by the author

Chapter 17 - To Hakodadi

The picture of the cutlass comes from the www.invaluable.com website

Picture of  Tokugawa Ieyasu on Wikipedia

Picture of Japanese junk from Nimitz Library, US Naval Academy.

Map by the author

Chapter 18  - Escape and Capture

Illustration printed in ‘Narrative of The Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, Performed in the Years 1852, 1853, and 1854, Under the command of Commodore M.C. Perry, United States Navy’  

Chapter 19  - To Nagasaki

Both the painting and the reproduction of the woodblock print are from Wikipedia. The painter of the portrait is unknown. The woodblock, by Toshimaya Bunjiemon, was copied into Isaac Titsingh's Bijzonderheden over Japan, which was published in the 1820s.

Map by the author.

Chapter 20 - A new focus

The map is from Wikipedia. The original was published with ‘A Dissertation on the Soil and Agriculture of the British Settlement of Penang’ by James Lowe.

Chapter 21 - Bowring and Siam

The picture of the Great Exhibition was downloaded from the about.com website

The photograph of King Mongkut dates from 1865 and was taken by the Scottish photographer John Thomson. From Wikipedia.

Chapter 22 - To the Gulf of Siam

The lithograph is from the Library of Congress, Washington D.C. Digital file number LC-DIG-rpusca-0569

The photograph was originally posted to Flickr by Jun as ‘Tomb for Chinese people in Ishigaki Island’. Evidently there was a rebellion on a ship bound for California during which approximately 400 emigrants died.

Map by the author.

Chapter 23 - A tricky time in Siam

The photograph of Harry Parkes is from Wikipedia, but the name of the photographer is not given.

Chapter 24 -  Gulf of Siam surveys - To Tringano

The photograph of Bhai Maharaj Singh is from www.siknet.com.

Map by the author

The photograph of Bukit Puteri is taken from a blog;


It is not clear when the photograph was taken, perhaps around 1900?

The quotation from King Mongkut is taken from ‘The Writings of King Mongkut to Sir John Browning’ which was published by The Historical Commission of the Prime Minister’s Secretariat (Bangkok 1994) The quotations in chapter 25 are from that publication too.

Chapter 25 -  Gulf of Siam surveys - The Kra isthmus

Some of the details about the expedition on the Isthmus of Darien are taken from Inskip’s own Remark’s Book. It is a great pity the ones covering his time on the Saracen have disappeared, but the story of how the two which do exist ended up in the British Columbia Archives is fascinating. Copy and paste the link below to read about it.


Chapter 26 -  Gulf of Siam surveys - Return to the Chao Phraya River

The photograph of the two rocks off Koh Kra (called Koh Kra today) was taken from the Sea Undersea website. The caption on the site photo reads;

Hin Sung - the two smaller islets off Koh Kra, from above the water.

The link to the website is;


The photograph of La Capricieuse in Quebec is held in the archives of the University of Montreal. It was downloaded from on the website of the Encyclopédie du patrimoine culturel de l'Amérique française.

Sources and acknowledgements